Learner Driver Information

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Legal requirements for driving in the UK

There are some basic requirements you need to know before you start learning to drive in the UK:

The Learner Driver must:
  • Be 17 years old to hold a licence to drive a car (Category B) but if you receive the higher rate mobility component of DLA (Disability Living Allowance) or the enhanced rate mobility component of PIP (Personal Independence Payment) you may hold a licence to drive a car (Category B) from the age of 16.
  • Have a valid provisional driving licence (for the type of vehicle being used – manual or automatic).

  • The vehicle should have insurance.

  • Ensure the vehicle is in a safe and legal condition.

  • Meet the legal minimum eyesight standards, to do this you must be able to read an “old style” number plate, from a minimum distance of 20.5 metres (approximately 67 feet or 5 car lengths). If reading a “new style” number plate (these letters are narrower) you must be able to read it from a minimum distance of 20 metres (approximately 66 feet).

  • Only drive when supervised by a person who is at least 21 years old and has a valid driving licence, which they have held for at least three years.

  • Put L Plates (or D Plates in Wales) on the front and rear of their vehicle.

You can apply for your provisional driving license when you’re 15 years and 9 months old, but you can’t have your first driving lesson on the road until you’re actually 17.

Also, you can learn to drive a car when you are 16 if you receive the higher rate mobility component of DLA or the enhanced rate mobility component of PIP.

You can apply for a provisional license online or by going to your local post office and completing the D1 application form.

The easiest way to apply is through the provisional driving licence page on the official GOV.UK website.

With a provisional license you can:
  • Begin the process of learning to drive a car at the age of 17.

  • Begin the process of learning to drive a car at the age of 16 if you receive the higher rate mobility component of DLA or the enhanced rate mobility component of PIP.

You cannot:
To get a provisional licence you will need:
  • To be able to read a number plate from 20 metres away if it’s a “new style” number plate or 20.5 metres away if it’s an “old style” one.

  • A legitimate form of ID (normally a passport).

  • Provide addresses for where you have lived over the last three years.

  • Pay £34 by credit or debit card.

If you are having private supervision, you the learner driver must insure to drive the vehicle you are using for private practice.

Make sure the insurers know your age and that you are a learner driver before you drive the car. You will be breaking the law and the police can issue a fixed penalty of £300 and 6 penalty points.

The police also have the power to seize the vehicl

The Supervising Driver must:
  • Be at least 21 years old.

  • Lots of patience.
  • A full driving license (for the type of vehicle being used – manual or automatic).

  • Hold valid license for a minimum of three years.

  • Ensure the car is in a safe and legal condition.

  • Meet the minimum eyesight standards.

  • The car displays L Plates (or D Plates in Wales) when a learner is driving.

  • Not receive any payment for supervising the learner (unless they are an approved Driving Instructor).

  • Comply with road traffic laws, such as not drinking and driving or using a hand-held mobile phone, even though they are in the passenger seat.

If the supervising driver has ever been disqualified from driving, the period does not count towards the 3 years requirement. Because the licence was not valid while they were disqualified.

Example: You gained your full driving licence 3 years ago, but were disqualified for 6 months at some point during the last 3 years. Then you will only have had a valid license for 2 years and 6 months. In this case, you cannot yet supervise a learner driver.


If the supervising driver owns the or by another person, make sure that the motor insurance policy includes the learner.

Take note of any restrictions. For example, some insurance companies require the supervising driver to be over 25 years old.

If the vehicle is owned by the learner, the supervising driver will usually be covered on the learner driver’s own insurance.

However, check the details before starting to supervise the learner, and whether the insurer has set any restrictions.

Ensure that the car is in a safe and road legal condition, including being properly registered, taxed and has a valid MOT. It is a good idea to have it checked and serviced before starting private practice.

You must also ensure that L Plates (or D Plates in Wales) are displayed on the front and rear of the vehicle whenever the learner is driving. Remember to remove them after each practice drive.

  • Tyres are undamaged (no cuts or bulges), are at the correct pressure and have enough tread depth. The legal minimum is 1.6mm, but above 3mm gives much shorter braking distances in the wet.

  • There are no signs of vehicle damage.

  • Oil, coolant and windscreen wash levels are correct (check when cold).

  • You know the correct type of fuel for the vehicle.

  • Brakes are in good working order.

  • Lights and indicators are in good working order.

  • Windscreen and windows are not damaged.

  • Washers and wipers are in good working order.

  • Mirrors are correctly positioned.

If you’re not sure how to do these checks, read the vehicle’s handbook, and/or ask someone to show you.

Anyone you pay to teach you to drive must be either:
  • A qualified and approved driving instructor (ADI).

  • A trainee driving instructor.

Check your Instructors badge

Instructors have to display a badge in their windscreen to prove they’re registered with the Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency (DVSA).

 They display:
  • A green badge if they’re a qualified driving instructor.

  • A pink badge if they’re a trainee.

You can report someone to DVSA if they charge for driving lessons and are not a qualified driving instructor or trainee.

Learner Information

Starting driving lessons may be the first time you have been in the driver’s seat of a car. With other cars on the road too, this can feel a little daunting.

But the right instructor will make you feel at ease and guide you through it step by step.

If you have some experience of driving, your first lesson would consist of an assessment on your ability to drive.

If you have no experience of driving, then to begin with, you will start off on very quiet roads. Or an industrial estate if possible, where there won’t be too much traffic. This is to gain confidence and build up your control of the vehicle, in a safe and controlled environment.

How many lessons should I have?

The average learner driver requires around 45 hours of lessons with an instructor and 20 hours of private practice with a relative or friend. But everyone learns at different rates and this all depends on previous experience and how quickly you learn.

This is only an average and don’t feel you have to compare your experience to anyone else’s, as we all learn at different paces.
Some people may take longer to get to test standard than others, it shouldn’t be treated as a competition. Some people take longer to feel comfortable behind the wheel than others. The most important thing is to take the test when you feel you are ready. Never feel pressured by someone else, into taking your test!!

Your instructor will let you know how you are progressing from week to week and you will see the difference in your driving development as the lessons progress. Once you have covered all the different topics of driving required to make you a safe and competent driver, there may be a few things that need to be fine-tuned to get you up to test standard. Your instructor will then start to discuss booking your practical driving test with you, but most of the time you will feel you are ready for it too – when that time comes, you can then have the discussion on how best to prepare for your test.

Intensive driving courses

Intensive driving courses are a great way to get you through the learning process quicker, if you have the time and the flexibility to do more than one lesson a week. However, they are not for everyone, as not everyone has the flexibility and funds available to learn this way.

The aim of an intensive driving course, is to get you through the training process quicker and usually takes 6 to 10 weeks to complete depending on your experience and the rate at which you learn.

People usually get an intensive driving course confused with a crash course, a crash course is completed within a 5-day period (Monday to Friday) and a practical driving test on the last day of the course. You are required to have passed your theory test before you take a crash course, to enable you to take the practical test on the final day of the course.

Learning this way is great for someone who already has plenty of knowledge and experience of driving, but not so great for a new inexperienced learner as it’s an awful amount of information to retain, in a very short amount of time.

Crash courses usually come with the slogan “Guaranteed Pass”, however no one can guarantee you will pass your practical driving test, no matter how much experience of driving you may have. Every practical test is slightly different with regards to what happens on each one, because of the road conditions, other road users and pedestrian activity. This changes constantly, so each experience will be somewhat different even though the syllabus remains the same. There is no guarantee each individual test candidate will deal correctly with each individual situation they may come across regardless of experience, so again no one can guarantee you will pass your test.

What should I take with me on my first lesson?

On your first driving lesson you will need to bring with you:

  • Suitable footwear.

  • Your provisional driving license.

  • Classes to read a number plate from the required distance.

Your first driving lesson can be daunting. You’re not sure what to expect. We will look at what you can do to make your first driving lesson go as smoothly as possible with these 10 tips.

1. Speak to Your Instructor on the Phone Before Your Lesson

We have previously spoken about what makes a good driving instructor. Customer service is one of the most important factors. If you speak to the instructor who is going to be teaching you before your lesson, then it makes the first meeting a little less daunting. You would have already spoken, built up some rapport and it won’t be as cold an introduction as if you had spoken for the before. If you’re not confident on the phone, most instructors are more than happy to text, so that might also be a good place to start building the relationship before your first lesson.

2. Don’t Forget Your Provisional Licence

When you’re eager (or anxious) to get behind the wheel, then it can become quite easy to forget your provisional licence. You need a provisional licence  to take to the road as a learner driver, so you’ll need to present it to your instructor on the first lesson so they can make a note of it. 

3. Get a Basic Understanding of the Highway Code

Getting to grips with the basics of the Highway Code is important and gaining a basic understanding of it will set you in good stead for your first lesson, and impress your instructor. If you start learning the basics rules of the road, then you’ll be much more relaxed and confident the first time you get behind the wheel.

4. Wear Comfortable Clothes

There would be nothing worse than to take your first driving lesson wearing an outfit that isn’t comfortable. You’ll of course be sitting still for long periods of time, so wearing uncomfortable, or even worse, inappropriate clothes will hinder your concentration. Be sure to wear comfortable and loose fitting clothing.

5. Wear Practical Shoes

You’re going to be getting to grips with using pedals and getting the basics of the “biting point” right in your first lesson. So be sure to wear practical flat soles shoes. Avoid wearing heels, flip flops, platforms and wedges. A pair of trainers, or any flat soled practical shoe will do the job. 

6. Wear Your Glasses / Contact Lenses if You Need Them

If you normally wear contact lenses or glasses, be sure to wear them when you take driving lessons. One of the first things your instructor will do is test your eyesight with the standard sight test you’ll need to do when taking your practical driving test.

The test simply requires you to be able to read a registration plate from a distance of 20.5 meters or around 5 car lengths. You might even discover you need glasses if you’re not able to do this, so it might even be worth getting your eyes tested ahead of your lesson if you haven’t had an eye test for a long time.

7. Turn Up on Time and Well Rested

It might sound obvious, but if you are tired you won’t be able to focus. In fact, tiring driving is dangerous even for season drivers of 20 years. As a first time learner, you need to make sure you turn up to your lesson well rested to maximise your concentration.

8. Ask Plenty of Questions

Your driving lessons provide an opportunity to ask as many questions as you like on your journey to becoming a driver. No question is too silly or ridiculous, and your instructor would have heard them all, so use your first lesson to ask plenty of questions and develop your knowledge. Of course you should also learn the highway code and study for your theory test in your own time, but you should ask questions in your lesson as you encounter specific scenarios.

9. Relax

When you’re learning a new skill it’s OK to accept that you are starting from zero. Relax and try not to be anxious about your abilities behind the wheel. You are going to stall, you are going to make mistakes and you will struggle a to some degree. That is perfectly OK. You’re on a journey to becoming a driver and that isn’t going to happen overnight. Your instructor will keep you safe, so you’ll never be in a position of danger.

10. Enjoy Yourself

Learning a new skill, particularly one as empowering and exiting as driving is going to change your life for the better. Don’t forget to have fun.

Passing your theory test is the first of 2 tests needed to be passed to allow you to drive on the road legally and without supervision.

You can take your theory test at your own discretion, however it is vitally important that you ensure you study sufficiently, to enable you to get it passed.

How to book your theory test and how much will it cost?

You can book your theory test either:

It costs £23 and there is usually a waiting time of a week or two depending on demand.

To find your local test centre, check GOV.UK website.

What does the theory test consist of?

A multiple choice test

The first part of the theory test is a computer-based multiple-choice test consisting of 50 questions on the Highway Code.
You’ll have 57 minutes to complete it and you need to get 43 out of 50 questions correct to pass it.

A hazard perception test

Once you’ve completed the theory test, you’ll then have to take a hazard perception test.

This uses 14 video clips, and you’ll have to click the mouse whenever you spot a hazard developing.

There are 15 hazards to spot, with at least one on each clip and two in one of the clips. The hazard clips are silent.

When you spot a hazard developing, you can click either the left or right mouse button.

Earlier you spot it the more points you will get. You can score between zero and five on each hazard clip, with a maximum of 75 overall and to pass, you need a score of 44 or above.

The hazard perception test lasts twenty minutes, and you don’t get the chance to go back and repeat any of the clips – just like real-life driving where you don’t get a second chance.

You’ll find out straight away whether you’ve passed both tests – and once you have, you’ll be able to then book your practical test. Remember once you have passed the theory test, it is only valid for 2 years to the date of passing.

If your theory test runs out before you have passed your practical driving test, then you would have to resit the theory test again, before being allowed to resit the practical driving test.

How to book the practical driving test and how much does it cost?

Before booking your test, ensure you have the following items:

  • Your UK driving licence number (found on your provisional licence).

  • You’re driving instructor’s personal reference number – this is to check if they’re available should you wish them to attend the test with you – which is often recommended.

  • A credit or debit card.

To book your practical test online visit the GOV.UK website.

There is also an option on the GOV.UK page to look for driving test cancellations  this will allow you to potentially book an earlier appointment if someone else cancels their test before yours.

Unfortunately, there is no alert system for this, so if you are eagerly awaiting the chance to book one of these ‘cancellation appointments’ you will need to check their availability regularly, even daily or hourly.

What do you need to take with you for your driving test?

You’ll need to bring your:

  • Theory test pass certificate.

  • Provisional driving licence.

  • Glasses if needed, to read a number plate from the required distance.

  • A positive attitude.

How long does the test last?

The driving test lasts around 40 minutes however this may vary depending on traffic and road conditions.

You’ll drive for around 70 minutes if you’re taking an extended driving test, because you’ve been banned from driving.
An extended test consists of the same thing, its just almost twice as long meaning you have twice as much time to fail!

What does the driving test involve?

The practical test makes sure you can drive confidently and safely in different road and traffic conditions and that you know The Highway Code (and can show this by the way you drive).

You can find out more by looking at the GOV.UK website  such as what documents you’ll need to bring to the test, what happens during the test and what sort of car you can use for your test.

There are 5 parts to the driving test:
  • An eyesight check.

  • Show me, tell me’ vehicle safety questions.

  • General driving ability.

  • Reversing your vehicle.

  • Independent driving.

The test is the same for both manual and automatic cars.

Eyesight Check

At the beginning of the driving test, the examiner will do an eyesight check and you must be able to read a number plate from 20 metres away if it’s a “new style” number plate or 20.5 metres away if it’s an “old style” one.

New-style number plates start with 2 letters followed by 2 numbers, such as TS01 ODS.

If you fail the eyesight check, the test will then end and unfortunately you fail.

Show me Tell me Questions

Before you begin the driving part of the test, you will be asked a question about safety checks on your car. Check these out on the DVSA’s “Show me Tell me” video on YouTube below.


You will be asked a second ‘show me’ question (for example, showing how to put the windows up and down using the car controls) later, while you’re driving.

General driving ability

You’ll drive in various road and traffic conditions, but not on motorways.

The examiner will give you directions that you should follow. Driving test routes are not published, so you cannot check them before your test.

Pulling over at the side of the road

To pull over and pull away during your test, including:

  • Normal stops at the side of the road.

  • Pulling out from behind a parked vehicle.

  • A hill-start.

You might also be asked to carry out an emergency stop.

Reversing your vehicle

The examiner will ask you to do one of the following exercises:

  • Parallel park at the side of the road.

  • Park in a parking bay – either by driving in and reversing out, or reversing in and driving out (the examiner will tell you which you have to do).

  • Pull up on the right-hand side of the road, reverse back for around 2 car lengths and then re-join the traffic.

Independent driving

For about 20 minutes of the test you’ll drive independently. Your examiner will ask you to follow directions or signs to reach a destination or you may be asked to follow a sat-nav. This is so you can show you’ll be able to drive safely on your own once you’ve passed your test.

4 out of 5 candidates will be asked to follow directions from a sat-nav provided by the examiner and 1 out of 5 driving tests won’t use a sat-nav and you’ll be asked to follow traffic signs instead.

The examiner will tell you which one you have to follow.

They’ll set the sat-nav up for you if this is the option selected.

You cannot use your own sat-nav.

If you cannot see traffic signs

If you cannot see a traffic sign (for example, because it’s covered by trees), the examiner will give you directions until you can see the next one.

Going off the route

The examiner will not give you a fault for taking a wrong turn.

They’ll help you get back on the route if you do.

If you make mistakes during your test

You can carry on if you make a mistake. It might not affect your test result if it’s not serious.

Your driving examiner will direct you back to the driving test centre if the mistake you made means you’ve failed. The test will end early.

Other people at your test

You’re driving examiner’s supervisor might sit in on your test to watch your examiner’s performance. If you refuse, your test can be cancelled and you’ll have to book another test.

Instructor on test

You are allowed to take your instructor with you on your test, or anyone who’s over the age of 16.

It’s useful to have your instructor or the person who trained you to drive with you as they can help you work on any problems the examiner notices, either to help you pass next time or if you want to keep learning after you pass your test.

Having someone you know with you can also help you to stay calm during the test.

However, sometimes this can also go the other way and put you off. It’s not the normal situation your used to and having someone else in the back seat, also adds extra weight to the car and it may affect the way the car drives.

You won’t find out how you’ve done until you get back to the test centre, when the examiner will discuss his/her observations with you.

There are 3 types of faults you can make:

  • Dangerous fault – this involves actual danger to you, the examiner, the public or property.

  • Serious fault – something potentially dangerous.

  • Driving fault – this is not potentially dangerous, but if you keep making the same fault, it could become a serious fault.

Pass mark

You’ll pass your driving test if you make:

  • No more than 15 driving faults (sometimes called ‘minors’).

  • No serious or dangerous faults (sometimes called ‘majors’).

What happens if you pass your test?

The examiner will:

  • Tell you what faults you made, if any.

  • Give you a pass certificate.

  • Ask you if you want your full licence to be sent to you automatically – give the examiner your provisional licence if you want to do this.

Apply for your full driving licence within 2 years of passing your test if you do not want to get your licence automatically.

When you can start driving?

You can start driving straight away when you’ve passed your test. You do not need to wait for your full licence to arrive.

Contact DVLA if your full licence has not arrived 3 weeks after you applied for it.

What happens if you do not pass your test?

The examiner will tell you what faults you made.

If you wanted to try again, you would have to book another test.

Can you appeal your driving test?

You can appeal if you think your examiner did not follow the regulations when they carried out your test.

Your test result cannot be changed, but you might get a free retest if your appeal is successful.

How do you appeal?

Contact your local magistrate’s court within 6 months to appeal in England and Wales.

If you’ve got a serious case of pre-driving test nerves, here are the best ways to banish your driving anxiety.

Before you take your driving test

  • Chat to your instructor about how you feel if you need reassurance.
  • Practice any manoeuvres which you think need a little more work and focus. Don’t shy away from the parts of driving you find difficult and hope they won’t show up during the test – you’ll need a full skill set to pass.
  • Ask your instructor if you should take any extra lessons to focus on things you find tricky.
  • Visit the driving test centre that you’re going to take the test at; taking in the reception area and getting familiar with your surroundings will help you feel calmer on the day.
  • Practice with family and friends as much as you can – they’ll also help to boost your confidence.
  • Accept that nerves are normal – you’re bound to feel a bit anxious before you take your driving test. After all, you’ve worked really hard to get to this point. 
  • You could keep the date and time of your test private to minimize stress. That way, if you pass it’s a great surprise – and if you fail, you don’t have to worry about telling people. 

The day before your test

  • Get some exercise. It’ll help you relax that evening, and give you an endorphin boost – great for keeping a positive attitude. 
  • Don’t hit the town the night before – even if you’re feeling anxious, you’ll feel twice as bad the following day – and you might not legally be able to drive.
  • Get plenty of sleep and book your test for the morning if you’d rather not worry about it all day. 

On the day of your test

The trick is to treat it like it’s just another normal day – try and stick to your routine as much as possible, whether that’s going for a job, walking the dog, or just relaxing and watching some TV. 

Lots of people book an extra lesson with their instructor to get used to the feeling of driving a car before their test, and so it’s fresh in their memory. 

  • Drink plenty of water but steer clear of too much caffeine – you want to feel alert, not totally wired.
  • Switch your phone off or turn it to ‘Airplane Mode’ an hour before the test to help clear your mind.
  • Eat a decent breakfast and dress comfortably – you want to be able to move freely and focus on your driving.
  • Check the time of your test, the test centre address, and that you can get there in plenty of time to sit down and relax beforehand.
  • If you need the moral support, take a friend or a family member with you.

During your test

You might feel you’ll struggle to overcome your driving test nerves – but it can be done. Here are some simple ways to give your driving anxiety the heave-ho:

  • The first 12 seconds of the test are crucial – so focus on starting the engine, preparing your car and looking around you as you prepare to move off.
  • Listen to their instructions – and ask the examiner to repeat them if you don’t understand.
  • The examiner doesn’t want to see any fancy moves – they’re not expecting showmanship.
  • You’re allowed to give the examiner an explanation of why you behaved in that way on the decision you are not happy with.
  • In case of new situation, don’t panic – take a deep breath and think about your approach before you continue.
  • If you make a mistake, relax – it doesn’t mean you’ve failed! You’re entitled to 15 minor faults during your test, so there’s room for error.

For more tips on staying calm before and during your test, check out the advice given by Anxiety UK.

Ease those driving test nerves with our expert driving test tips to help you pass first time.

Nerves are normal, but the best way to placate them on the day of your driving test is to be as prepared as possible.

Use our 15 expert tips to help you keep your cool on the big day.

How to pass your driving test – our tips:

  1. Be on time
  2. Have a lesson beforehand
  3. Check you have everything you need
  4. Ask your examiner to repeat, if you need
  5. Don’t assume you have failed
  6. Get to know your test routes
  7. Exaggerate those mirror checks
  8. Choose when you take your test
  9. listen to your instructor
  10. Go over your theory again

1. Be on time

It’s an obvious one to start with but turning up in good time for your test will start you off on the right foot.

Arriving late puts you at risk of missing it entirely, while rushing to get there in time will leave you feeling flustered, even if you do make it.

Arrive at your test centre 10-20 minutes beforehand so you have long enough to prepare, but won’t be waiting around too long.

Ensuring you get a good night’s sleep is also important to avoid unnecessary stress or anxiety.

2. Have a lesson beforehand

We’d also recommend fitting in a driving lesson on the day of your test if possible – that way you can go over any manoeuvres or ask for clarification on last-minute questions you may have.

A lesson beforehand will help calm your nerves and put you in the right frame of mind for driving.

3. Check you have everything you need

Thousands of driving tests a year don’t go ahead because the candidate fails to turn up with everything needed on the day.

Make sure you have all the required documents and that your car is properly equipped and up to the test standard.

4.Ask your examiner to repeat, if you need

If you don’t hear an instruction properly during you test, stay calm and just ask the examiner to repeat it.

Panicking will only cause you to lose focus and slip up.

5.Don’t assume you’ve failed

If you do make a mistake, remember you’re allowed up to 15 minors during your test so try not to dwell on them and always assume you’re still going to pass.

An error like stalling is a minor fault (as long as it’s not in a potentially dangerous situation), even if it feels like you’ve made a huge mistake at the time. If it happens, remain in control and restart the car.

Don’t let minor mistakes play on your mind, or you run the risk of making even more.

6.Get to know your test routes

It’s impossible to know where you will be directed on the day or what traffic or hazards you’ll face along the way.

However, once you’ve selected your test centre, you can always get to know the area and test routes beforehand.

Make sure you’ve practiced on a variety of roads. A mixture of major and minor roads, country lanes and dual carriageways is important if you want to avoid any nasty surprises on test day.

7.Exaggerate those mirror checks

One of the biggest cause of minor faults for many learner drivers in their test is a lack of observation.

Check your mirrors regularly – especially when setting off, approaching hazards, changing road position and changing gears.

While examiners are trained to look out for you checking your mirrors (and will have an extra mirror to do so), sometimes being a bit over the top in your mirror-checking won’t do any harm.

8.Choose when you take your test

Don’t book your test for a time when you’re likely to have other things on your mind.

Whether its school work, exams, family commitments or anything else, make sure it falls at a time you can give it your undivided attention to ensure you have the best chance of passing.


9.Listen to your instructor

After hours of driving lessons, your driving instructor will have a pretty good idea about whether you’re up to the challenge of passing your test.

It’s not in their interest to encourage you to take your test early – doing so will only waste their time, harm their pass rate and knock your confidence.

If they say you’re up to the job, have faith in yourself.

They’ll also have a clear idea of your weaknesses – ask to concentrate on them in lessons, and consider a last minute lesson before your test to calm your nerves.

10.Go over your theory again

It can often be some time between taking your theory and practical test so it’s a good idea to go over your copy of the Highway Code and the meanings of road signs again before getting in the car with the examiner.

Even if you’re pretty confident it can still help you feel more relaxed. It’s also a good idea just to check you’re up to date with the latest DVLA standards of driving in case they’ve changed.


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